- Change the name of something by using their initials; for example, United Nations becomes U.N.
- Use full stops to indicate that it is an abbreviation.
- Use the long form the first time you write (with the short form in brackets), then the short form (initials) can be used thereafter. Example: Peter Jones presented at the United Nations (U.N.) assembly in New York (N.Y.). Peter’s comments to the U.N. were received with enthusiasm.
- When initials become a new word (or something that is well known), you don’t need to add the full stops; for example: Peter Jones presented at the United Nations (UN) assembly in New York (NY). Peter’s comments to the UN were received with enthusiasm.
Tag Archives: Abbreviation
And others (et al.)
- The latin is et alli, abbreviated to et al.
- Et al. is used to indicate a list of authors in a reference; for example, Glassop, et al.
- Generally, always list all authors the first time, after that you can use the first author and et al.
- Always consult your official reference style guide to check the requirements
The same place (ibid.)
- The latin is ibidem, abbreviated to ibid.
- When repeating a citation consecutively, you can put ibid. to indicate that the reference is exactly same as the previous one
- For example, (ibid.)
- If ibid. is used in a footnote, use a capital I: Ibid.
In the place cited (loc. cit.)
- The latin is loco citato, abbreviated to loc. cit.
- An alternative meaning is: in the same location
- When repeating a citation, you can put loc. cit. to indicate that the reference is the same resource (author/s and date) and the same citation location (i.e., page number or paragraph) as the previous one
- For example, “Smith (loc. cit.), also claims that…”
In the work cited (op. cit.)
- The latin is opere citato, abbreviated to op. cit.
- When repeating a citation, you can put op. cit. to indicate that the reference is the same resource (author/s and date) as the previous one (but the citation location, i.e., page or paragraph number, is different)
- For example (op. cit., p.3)
- Latin phrases are generally italicized